Concept name: Input Output

Concept explanation: In these type of questions, arrangement of Words or Letters or Numbers or combination of these three will be given. Different operations will be provided according to which words or letters will re-arrange themselves in a particular pattern. These operations will be performed until the final arrangement is reached. One has to identify the pattern in each question and has to solve the question accordingly. Generally four types of question are asked from this topic:

  1. Ordering – Alphabetically or increasing/decreasing order.

  2.  Mathematical manipulation – The pattern can be of any mathematical input. Like adding, multiplication etc.

  3. Shifting – This constitutes Shifting or Changing of the Words/Letters/Numbers.

  4. Others – Replacing numbers or alphabets with corresponding alphabets or numbers respectively etc.

Sample set: Read the information given below and answer the questions that follows:

A word arrangement machine, when given an input line of words, rearrange the following a particular rule. Following presents the input and steps generate as per this rule:

Input:       Go for to though by easy to access at

Step I:      Access go for to though by easy to at

Step II:     Access at go for to though by easy to

Step III:    Access at by go for to though easy to

Step IV:    Access at by easy go for to though to

Step V:     Access at by easy for go to though to

Step VI:    Access at by easy for go though to to

(Step VI is the last step for this input.) As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in the given questions the appropriate step for the given input.

Q1. Input: ” Story for around on was he at “.

Which of the following will be Step IV for the given input?

a. Around at for he on was story

b. Around at for he on story was

c. Around at for he story on was

d. Around at he for story on was

Q2. Input: ” Every ant peer to an for “.

Which of the following steps would the last step for this input?

a. II

b. III

c. IV

d. V

 Q3. Step II of an input is as follows: ” Do and pet to on that “.

a. Do on pet to and that

b. Do pet to and that on

c. Do and pet to on that

d. Cannot be determined


A quick glance at the last steps gives us an idea that words have been arranged alphabetically 1st and if the 1st letter is same, the 2nd letter decides the order of occurrence. This sequencing is also known as sequencing based upon dictionary usage.

Solution 1:

Step I    = Around story for on was he at

Step II   = Around at story for on was he

Step III  = Around at for story on was he

Step IV  = Around at for he story on was

Hence (c) is the correct answer.

Solution 2:

Step I   = an every ant peer to for

Step II  = an ant every peer to for

Step III = an ant every for peer to

This is the last step for this input as all the words are alphabetically arranged now. Hence (b) is the correct answer.

Solution 3:

We cannot go back to input from any step in any question set that is based upon some reasoning. Hence (d) is the correct answer.

Hope you understood solving questions on Input Output.

Happy learning!

Nazish Sir

Trainer, eXtrasem

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Concept name:– Clocks

Concept explanation:   In one hour minute hand travel 360 degrees and Hour hand travel 30 degrees.

Sample set: Read the information given below and answer the questions that follow:

Q) At what times between 4’0 Clock and 5’0 Clock, will the hour hand and minute hand be 87 degrees apart from each other for the first time?

Ans. At 4’0 Clock, the minute and hour hand are 120 degrees apart. Now, the Relative speed between both hands = 330 degrees/hr. They need to travel relatively 33 degrees so that angle becomes 87 degrees.

Time =  (33/330)hrs =  (1/10) hr = (1/10) * 60 mins = 6 mins

So time will be 4:06

Level of difficulty: Easy

Q) How many times a day does minute hand meet the hour hand?

Ans: Let's start with 12 am. Both hands are together. When will they meet again? When the minute hand travels 1 circle relative to the hour hand. So time to meet = 1 circle/ relative speed of the clock hands. So, time taken would be 360 degrees/5.5 degrees per minute = 720/11 minutes.

So, how many times will this happen in 24 hours?

= 24*60/(720/11) = 2*11 = 22 times

Level of difficulty: Easy

Happy learning!

Rahul Sir

Quora profile:

No matter what exam you are going to take, a good and speedy reading of comprehension is something that is going to play an important role in giving you an edge over other candidates. The bigger question is that how can one’s reading be improved, what are the areas in which a novice needs to work on. 

Many a times we come across people who complain that despite the comprehension being very easy and knowing all the answers they could not attempt all the questions. This should make us realize the significance of speedy reading. No matter how good one is at understanding the passage and finding out the answers, if one can’t complete the reading on time the will never be able to score good in exams. One can improve one’s speed by reading aloud. You can take a newspaper or any novel of your choice and read it aloud; by aloud I do not mean that your reading should be audible to your neighbors. It should be done in a way that you can be audible to your ears and at the same time be able to have a good understanding of what you are reading. If your brain is not able to decode the messages your ears are bringing to it, then it is of no use, therefore while reading aloud you should also be able to understand it.

Vocabulary is another important aspect of your reading. If you do not know the words that has been used in the passage; the fluency of your reading is sure to get hindered. These slippages are sure to affect your speed and understanding. First you must try to improve your vocabulary, and this can only be done if you indulge into extensive reading. Content of what you are reading is also important. Anything that is accessible and gives an easy reading should not be picked. You must first try to find out the various topics on which the questions are asked. In most of the exams passages from Philosophy, Psychology, literature, Economics, History are given. Having a prior knowledge of these topics will enhance your understanding during the examination and you will also be able to know various terms which are typical of the particular subject.   

No matter how strong one’s vocabulary is, no one can know all the words that are in our dictionary and there are greater chances that while reading you come across words that you are unaware of and due to that the entire paragraph or at least some parts may become undecipherable. To overcome this problem you should avoid looking up for the meanings into the dictionary or your phones while reading the passage, because during the exams you will not get a dictionary. You should always try to find out the contextual meaning of the words. However you can look up for the meanings of the difficult words once you have finished reading and answering the questions. Also try to know the origin of the words, and also maintain a copy where you write down all the new words that you come across. Knowing just the meaning of the words is not useful; you should also know how to use these words in a sentence.

Make sure that you read a lot looking on to a monitor. These days a lot of exams are taken online and you should develop this habit, or your eyes may start straining.

You should also have the best conditions for reading; choose a place that is peaceful and well lit.  

Shachi Singh

Trainer, Verbal

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